Persistence

You can use the dsl library to define your mappings and a basic persistent layer for your application.

For more comprehensive examples have a look at the examples directory in the repository.

Document

If you want to create a model-like wrapper around your documents, use the Document class. It can also be used to create all the necessary mappings and settings in elasticsearch (see Document life cycle for details).

from datetime import datetime
from elasticsearch_dsl import Document, Date, Nested, Boolean, \
    analyzer, InnerDoc, Completion, Keyword, Text

html_strip = analyzer('html_strip',
    tokenizer="standard",
    filter=["standard", "lowercase", "stop", "snowball"],
    char_filter=["html_strip"]
)

class Comment(InnerDoc):
    author = Text(fields={'raw': Keyword()})
    content = Text(analyzer='snowball')
    created_at = Date()

    def age(self):
        return datetime.now() - self.created_at

class Post(Document):
    title = Text()
    title_suggest = Completion()
    created_at = Date()
    published = Boolean()
    category = Text(
        analyzer=html_strip,
        fields={'raw': Keyword()}
    )

    comments = Nested(Comment)

    class Index:
        name = 'blog'

    def add_comment(self, author, content):
        self.comments.append(
          Comment(author=author, content=content, created_at=datetime.now()))

    def save(self, ** kwargs):
        self.created_at = datetime.now()
        return super().save(** kwargs)

Note on dates

elasticsearch-dsl will always respect the timezone information (or lack thereof) on the datetime objects passed in or stored in Elasticsearch. Elasticsearch itself interprets all datetimes with no timezone information as UTC. If you wish to reflect this in your python code, you can specify default_timezone when instantiating a Date field:

class Post(Document):
    created_at = Date(default_timezone='UTC')

In that case any datetime object passed in (or parsed from elasticsearch) will be treated as if it were in UTC timezone.

Document life cycle

Before you first use the Post document type, you need to create the mappings in Elasticsearch. For that you can either use the Index object or create the mappings directly by calling the init class method:

# create the mappings in Elasticsearch
Post.init()

This code will typically be run in the setup for your application during a code deploy, similar to running database migrations.

To create a new Post document just instantiate the class and pass in any fields you wish to set, you can then use standard attribute setting to change/add more fields. Note that you are not limited to the fields defined explicitly:

# instantiate the document
first = Post(title='My First Blog Post, yay!', published=True)
# assign some field values, can be values or lists of values
first.category = ['everything', 'nothing']
# every document has an id in meta
first.meta.id = 47


# save the document into the cluster
first.save()

All the metadata fields (id, routing, index etc) can be accessed (and set) via a meta attribute or directly using the underscored variant:

post = Post(meta={'id': 42})

# prints 42
print(post.meta.id)

# override default index
post.meta.index = 'my-blog'

Note

Having all metadata accessible through meta means that this name is reserved and you shouldn’t have a field called meta on your document. If you, however, need it you can still access the data using the get item (as opposed to attribute) syntax: post['meta'].

To retrieve an existing document use the get class method:

# retrieve the document
first = Post.get(id=42)
# now we can call methods, change fields, ...
first.add_comment('me', 'This is nice!')
# and save the changes into the cluster again
first.save()

# you can also update just individual fields which will call the update API
# and also update the document in place
first.update(published=True, published_by='me')

If the document is not found in elasticsearch an exception (elasticsearch.NotFoundError) will be raised. If you wish to return None instead just pass in ignore=404 to suppress the exception:

p = Post.get(id='not-in-es', ignore=404)
p is None

When you wish to retrive multiple documents at the same time by their id you can use the mget method:

posts = Post.mget([42, 47, 256])

mget will, by default, raise a NotFoundError if any of the documents wasn’t found and RequestError if any of the document had resulted in error. You can control this behavior by setting parameters:

raise_on_error
If True (default) then any error will cause an exception to be raised. Otherwise all documents containing errors will be treated as missing.
missing
Can have three possible values: 'none' (default), 'raise' and 'skip'. If a document is missing or errored it will either be replaced with None, an exception will be raised or the document will be skipped in the output list entirely.

The index associated with the Document is accessible via the _index class property which gives you access to the Index class.

The _index attribute is also home to the load_mappings method which will update the mapping on the Index from elasticsearch. This is very useful if you use dynamic mappings and want the class to be aware of those fields (for example if you wish the Date fields to be properly (de)serialized):

Post._index.load_mappings()

To delete a document just call its delete method:

first = Post.get(id=42)
first.delete()

Analysis

To specify analyzer values for Text fields you can just use the name of the analyzer (as a string) and either rely on the analyzer being defined (like built-in analyzers) or define the analyzer yourself manually.

Alternatively you can create your own analyzer and have the persistence layer handle its creation, from our example earlier:

from elasticsearch_dsl import analyzer, tokenizer

my_analyzer = analyzer('my_analyzer',
    tokenizer=tokenizer('trigram', 'nGram', min_gram=3, max_gram=3),
    filter=['lowercase']
)

Each analysis object needs to have a name (my_analyzer and trigram in our example) and tokenizers, token filters and char filters also need to specify type (nGram in our example).

Note

When creating a mapping which relies on a custom analyzer the index must either not exist or be closed. To create multiple Document-defined mappings you can use the Index object.

class Meta options

In the Meta class inside your document definition you can define various metadata for your document:

mapping
optional instance of Mapping class to use as base for the mappings created from the fields on the document class itself.

Any attributes on the Meta class that are instance of MetaField will be used to control the mapping of the meta fields (_all, dynamic etc). Just name the parameter (without the leading underscore) as the field you wish to map and pass any parameters to the MetaField class:

class Post(Document):
    title = Text()

    class Meta:
        all = MetaField(enabled=False)
        dynamic = MetaField('strict')

class Index options

This section of the Document definition can contain any information about the index, its name, settings and other attributes:

name
name of the index to use, if it contains a wildcard (*) then it cannot be used for any write operations and an index kwarg will have to be passed explicitly when calling methods like .save().
doc_type
name of the _type in elasticsearch. Note that you have to define this as well as doc_type in class Meta in order for it to take effect.
using
default connection alias to use, defaults to 'default'
settings
dictionary containing any settings for the Index object like number_of_shards.
analyzers
additional list of analyzers that should be defined on an index (see Analysis for details).
aliases
dictionary with any aliases definitions

Document Inheritance

You can use standard Python inheritance to extend models, this can be useful in a few scenarios. For example if you want to have a BaseDocument defining some common fields that several different Document classes should share:

class User(InnerDoc):
    username = Text(fields={'keyword': Keyword()})
    email = Text()

class BaseDocument(Document):
    created_by = Object(User)
    created_date = Date()
    last_updated = Date()

    def save(**kwargs):
        if not self.created_date:
            self.created_date = datetime.now()
        self.last_updated = datetime.now()
        return super(BaseDocument, self).save(**kwargs)

class BlogPost(BaseDocument):
    class Index:
        name = 'blog'

Another use case would be using the join type to have multiple different entities in a single index. You can see an example of this approach. Note that in this case, if the subclasses don’t define their own Index classes, the mappings are merged and shared between all the subclasses.

Index

In typical scenario using class Index on a Document class is sufficient to perform any action. In a few cases though it can be useful to manipulate an Index object directly.

Index is a class responsible for holding all the metadata related to an index in elasticsearch - mappings and settings. It is most useful when defining your mappings since it allows for easy creation of multiple mappings at the same time. This is especially useful when setting up your elasticsearch objects in a migration:

from elasticsearch_dsl import Index, Document, Text, analyzer

blogs = Index('blogs')

# define custom settings
blogs.settings(
    number_of_shards=1,
    number_of_replicas=0
)

# define aliases
blogs.aliases(
    old_blogs={}
)

# register a document with the index
blogs.document(Post)

# can also be used as class decorator when defining the Document
@blogs.document
class Post(Document):
    title = Text()

# You can attach custom analyzers to the index

html_strip = analyzer('html_strip',
    tokenizer="standard",
    filter=["standard", "lowercase", "stop", "snowball"],
    char_filter=["html_strip"]
)

blogs.analyzer(html_strip)

# delete the index, ignore if it doesn't exist
blogs.delete(ignore=404)

# create the index in elasticsearch
blogs.create()

You can also set up a template for your indices and use the clone method to create specific copies:

blogs = Index('blogs', using='production')
blogs.settings(number_of_shards=2)
blogs.document(Post)

# create a copy of the index with different name
company_blogs = blogs.clone('company-blogs')

# create a different copy on different cluster
dev_blogs = blogs.clone('blogs', using='dev')
# and change its settings
dev_blogs.setting(number_of_shards=1)

IndexTemplate

elasticsearch-dsl also exposes an option to manage index templates in elasticsearch using the IndexTemplate class which has very similar API to Index.

Once an index template is saved in elasticsearch it’s contents will be automatically applied to new indices (existing indices are completely unaffected by templates) that match the template pattern (any index starting with blogs- in our example), even if the index is created automatically upon indexing a document into that index.

Potential workflow for a set of time based indices governed by a single template:

from datetime import datetime

from elasticsearch_dsl import Document, Date, Text


class Log(Document):
    content = Text()
    timestamp = Date()

    class Index:
        name = "logs-*"
        settings = {
          "number_of_shards": 2
        }

    def save(self, **kwargs):
        # assign now if no timestamp given
        if not self.timestamp:
            self.timestamp = datetime.now()

        # override the index to go to the proper timeslot
        kwargs['index'] = self.timestamp.strftime('logs-%Y%m%d')
        return super().save(**kwargs)

# once, as part of application setup, during deploy/migrations:
logs = Log._index.as_template('logs')
logs.save()

# to perform search across all logs:
search = Log.search()